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“Since the coliforms when tested… are grown at optimum growth temperature of 37C, why would you need to raise the faecal coliform test temperature to 44.5C to show thermotolerant E. coli are present? Why would food safety people be looking for thermotolerant bacteria in food rather than bacteria that grow at normal temperatures? In my article, I provided some background information on "faecal indicator microorganisms", which we use to show that a food or water sample may have been contaminated with faeces. These tests originated in the early days of public health services and safety of public water supply. The coliforms are easier to detect and enumerate than are Salmonella or Shigella or faecal viruses. So the answer to the first question is “we are not particularly interested in thermotolerant coliforms; rather we want to show that the water supply may have been contaminated by human wastes and hence potentially contains faecal pathogens”. Having said that, of course there are other areas of food microbiology where we are very interested in the presence of thermotolerant or thermophilic bacteria. If we pasteurize milk with plate heat exchangers (the standard method) we may find that the cooling stages become colonized by thermotolerant streptococci, which may cause spoilage. In the case of canned foods, we find that some sporeforming bacteria can survive even a very rigorous thermal process.
The Igbo people of eastern Nigeria are known for their Fashion, music and Lifestyle. They are predominantly Christians with some practicing Islam and traditional religions. They are known to have many delicious local dishes made with native ingredients. A staple common in most igbo cuisine are cassava, Uziza leaves, Dry fish, Stock fish and cocoa yam. Other food items include palm oil, water yam, garden eggs and bitter leaf. Oha Soup is a popular Igbo dish made from the oha leave. The delicious soup is made with local leaves, cocoa yam and other ingredients. The raw materials are readily available in the Nigeria market. Common ingredients used to prepare the dish include palm oil, stock fish, smoked fish, Ogiri, seasoning and crayfish. Others are Uziza leaves, Egusi, dry fish, salt, pepper and Oha leaves. Note: soak stockfish and dry meat separately in boiling water. Wash and remove dirt and burnt smell from meat while tenderizing the stockfish. The cocoa yam could be replaced or introduced alongside Egusi.
1 medium bunch of Oha leaves. To prepare Oha soup wash, cook, peel and pound the soft cocoa yam. Parboil meat with seasoning and grind fresh pepper and crayfish. Add washed and processed stock/dry fish into the parboiled meat. Once the dry fish is tender introduce water, seasoning, salt, palm oil and crayfish. To thicken the soup-introduce the cocoa yam or Egusi. Bring too boil before adding Ogiri and let the mixture blend properly. Finally add the Oha and Uziza leaves and allow cooking for 5 minutes. The palm nut tree is a very important plant in Nigeria because of its many economic applications. The palm nut kernel extract is common in many Nigerian dishes. Top of the list are dishes such as Ofe Akwu, Banga soup, Black soup and Atama soup. Many Igbo soups feature beef, stockfish, dry fish and different types of vegetable leaves. Ofe Akwu is fun to make, easy and delicious to eat. Let’s look at a few ingredients used in the preparation of the soup. Start by parboiling the meat then introduce the processed stockfish. Once soft add Ogiri, fresh pepper and then palm nut paste/palm nut extract and stir.
Allow to boil for 10 minutes till a slightly watery yet thick consistency is achieved. Finally add crayfish, salt, sprinkle dried basil leaf essence and allow boiling. Then lower the heat and add Ugu leaves and allow cooking for a few minutes. Ofe Owerri with Fish. Although Goat’s head soup sounds weird it is an Igbo delicacy. Goat head is served in many beer parlors and pubs in eastern and western Nigeria. Goat head soup is delicious and is eaten as a meal or with rice. You first cut the goat head into pieces and remove the brain. Clean the meat thoroughly by scraping and wash until clean and free from dirt. Pay special attention to the tongue and make sure the organ meat parts are complete. Dilute a very small quantity of edible potash in water, sieve and strain. Then pour liquid potash mix in oil and stir it until you get a yellowish consistency.